One of the main conflicts in today’s Middle Eastern countries is that those who do not profess the same faith (or even the faith in the same way) are considered members of other factions, and therefore the division between people is emphasized even further, sometimes even through violence. The Armenian diaspora was mentioned above. There are many other ethnicities in the Middle East whose diaspora has been expanded all over our “globalized” world, and they have been both oppressors and oppressed. This is what many thinkers and humanists have denounced and had even given their lives for the cause of equality among people, no matter where they come from or what their beliefs, language, or customs are.
In this regard, it is necessary to emphasize that certain people are more aggressive and bloodthirsty than others, and what history tells us is that the Ottoman Empire has perpetrated and sponsored savage killings throughout its history. Today an ethnic minority, the Kurds, are constantly persecuted and being annihilated by the Turkish state. Some journalists say that Turkey is now a fascist state, where many good people live (Christians, Muslims, and atheists alike). The main problem is the way in which the state behaves, the decisions they make etc. Of course, Istanbul is a cosmopolitan city that is open to the world and its new concepts, but there are still large sectors and regions that are extremely conservatives.
The genocide that has taken place in many of these countries has not been acknowledged by their states. There is a region known as the Republic of Artsakh which today is disputed by Azerbaijan and Armenia, although it is an independent republic, self-governed by its people. And then there are the geographical borders imposed by the state, those diffuse lines that determine who belongs to one side and another, although there are people on both sides.